Unconventional
theGeologyOfConventionalAndUn.jpg

The combined advancement of horizontal drilling and reservoir stimulation (hydraulic fracturing) technology has enabled the safe and cost-effective recovery of shale gas – a game-changing resource for the world’s energy supply. Shale gas, which is found in abundance throughout many continents, is an affordable, clean-burning fuel.

There are a number of benefits to shale gas production:
•This vast resource can be developed in stages, which means we can control the pace of development and match production with economic conditions and market demand
•A reduced surface footprint as multiple wells can be drilled from a single pad
•Communities realize economic benefits from investment in infrastructure and the hiring of local people

The advancement of new technologies, combined with ongoing research and development, allows this valuable energy source to be developed safely and responsibly.

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"Except for some very rare examples where the oil is contained in karstic caverns, oil is always contained in the pores of the rock.
When we talk about conventional, what we mean is that the oil is contained within a porous and permeable rock and is capable of flowing.
The term unconventional covers a few different types of fields, not just shale oil (which the HRZ is):
Shale oil and Shale gas,
Tight gas reservoirs
Tar Sands
Oil shales

Shale oils and Shale gas fields are where oil and/or gas have been generated in a source rock and where that source rock is the target, rather than targeting a conventional reservoir that the oil or gas has migrated to. These source rocks will have permeabilities in the nanodarcies, rather than in millidarcies like conventional reservoirs, and will not normally flow except if the rock is fractured."
SP-Oiler 13/01/17

Hydraulic Fracking How it Works
https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/documents/roleofinducedandnaturalimbibitioninfracfluid.pdf
http://www.xtoenergy.com/en-us/energy/unconventional-resource-development/technology-and-process/hydraulic-fracturing
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VY34PQUiwOQ
http://www.aoga.org/sites/default/files/news/8_andy_bond_-_caelus_-hydraulic_fracturing_in_ak_fact_vs_fiction.pdf
http://slickwaters.com/
http://www.spe.org/dl/docs/2010/MikeVincent.pdf (fraccing)
Frac Flowback Systems and Production Testing
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ic5MuDEA_Go
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F1IVAu6t05U

Wettability
https://phys.org/news/2017-07-recovery-tight-shale-reservoirs.html

Shut In Period
http://petroleum.mines.edu/research/emg/EMG_papers/2016%20JNGSE%20Effect%20of%20shut-in%20time%20on%20gas%20flow%20rate%20in%20hydraulic%20fractured%20shale%20reservoirs...%20by%20Fakcharoenphol%20.pdf

**Swabbing & Artificial Lift **
VIEW https://youtu.be/zOU0RPU_tlo
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zOU0RPU_tlo

READ
"In short, swabbing is a form of “well control” that releases bottom hole pressure in order to “kick” the well off. When wells are first drilled, they are usually fractured by a pressurized liquid to help open up “production zones” where oil or gas can travel to. The next step is where the actual swabbing takes place.

Swabbing rigs are then used to remove the fluids from the production zones. These swabbing rigs normally have a winch with a cable and a foldable mast with a pulley on top. First, the rig operator must back the machine as close to the well as he possibly can. Next, the operator raises the mast and moves it until it is aligned with the center of the well. Next, the operator lowers the cable in and out of the well via the “winch drum”. Here, the operator must be able to maintain control of the machine while taking into account the well’s sound and depth.

The activities of the swabbing rig then allow for the removal of the liquids inside the well. Standard practices involve removing 6 barrels of fluid out of the well. This practice if referred to as a “Run”. Some wells may take just one run while other may require multiple. Removing these fluids then causes the bottom hole pressure to increase. This allows the oil or gas to be pushed out of the well to cause it to start “flowing”. Oilfield workers may then start collecting and storing the natural resource that it being emitted from the well they are working on. As the well ages, the bottom pressure of the well may not be enough to push the oil and gas out of the well anymore. The well has then stopped flowing and the swabbing process needs to be started over again.

http://www.tigergeneral.com/swabbing-well-explaining-process-simple-terms/

Artificial Lift
http://www.rigzone.com/training/insight.asp?insight_id=315
https://www.gasworld.com/nitrogen-cleaning-up-in-oil-and-gas/2011513.article
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qM61hePSmac

http://www.offshore-mag.com/articles/print/volume-60/issue-8/news/nitrogen-use-increasing-downhole-in-reservoir-work.html

Horizontal Drilling
https://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://www.slb.com/~/media/Files/resources/mearr/wer16/rel_pub_mewer16_1.pdf&ved=0ahUKEwi27-Wxr6nSAhVMDMAKHfYUDf8QFgggMAA&usg=AFQjCNEuVh5Apip2EiO2qLqLu7helfGZ9Q
Extra Reading
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydraulic_fracturing
http://www.aogr.com/magazine/cover-story/developing-tools-practices-for-artificial-lift-applications-critical-in-horizontal wells
http://www.aogr.com/magazine/cover-story/leading-operators-improve-efficiency-and-effectiveness-of-multiwell-pad-ope
http://www.upstreamonline.com/upstreamtechnology/1275866/tackling-the-tight-oil-recovery-challenge
http://www.upstreamonline.com/upstreamtechnology/1275018/uncracking-the-code

Shale Production per Domun HC
"research has also found that emphasis on high initial production rates is misleading. Analysis of hundreds of Eagle Ford wells found that those with the highest initial production rates do not necessarily yield the greatest production during their first 2 years online. “There is lots of talk about IP rates. IP is not the game. Sustainable [production] rate is the game

Heres a link to a couple of items anyway.

http://www.ogj.com/articles/2014/06...ss-requires-rethinking-business-approach.html

http://www.ogj.com/articles/uogr/pr...lans-to-double-eagle-ford-output-by-2016.html

And this item has a wealth of Unconventional industry info that will be pertinent to 88e investors

http://www.ogj.com/content/dam/ogj/print-articles/supplements/bhp-billiton-new-era-of-shale/BHP%20BILLITON%20PETROLEUM-PDF-FINAL.pdf

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