Oil & GAS Links

Readers should be aware that not all statements may be factual or correct, please verify and research independently where possible.

See also Oil & Gas Nuggets, Conventional & Unconventional Pages.


Formation of Oil & Gas Woodside Petroleum Video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8YHsxXEVB1M&feature=youtu.be added 02/12/2019

https://fee.org/articles/41-inconvenient-truths-on-the-new-energy-economy/ added 08/07/2019

The History of Oil added May, 2019

Oil Consumption & Reserves
https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.php?id=41433 Added 27/09/2019
https://www.aogr.com/web-exclusives/exclusive-story/u.s.-holds-most-recoverable-oil-reserves added 26/05/2019 see link below also
https://www.visualcapitalist.com/map-countries-most-oil-reserves/ added 26/05/2019

Oil Pricing

Tight OIL Market Dynamics 03/2018

The 7 Key Factors Driving Small-Cap Oil and Gas Valuations

http://www.valuethemarkets.com/index.php/2019/02/15/back-basics-valuethemarkets-guide-creation-production-petroleum/ added 15/03/2019 BASIC READ

The Future of Oil and Gas
https://www.rigzone.com/news/oil_demand_to_grow_steadily_in_2020s-15-jan-2019-157919-article/?utm_campaign=DAILY_2019_01_16&utm_source=GLOBAL_ENG&utm_medium=EM_NW_F1 01/2019
https://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/energy-economics/statistical-review-of-world-energy.html 06/2018
Specific to Transport

https://www.afr.com/markets/citi-sees-10pc-battery-electric-vehicle-market-share-by-2030-20180611-h118ct 06/2018
https://oilprice.com/Energy/Energy-General/Can-We-Expect-Oil-Demand-To-Slow-Anytime-Soon.html 02/2018
https://www.strategyand.pwc.com/trend/2017-oil-and-gas-trends 11/02/18

List of Acronyms in Oil and Gas

Oil Industry Terminology
https://glossary.oilfield.slb.com/ Schlumberger Glossary added 03/12/20

OIL & GAS Education

Readers should be aware that not all statements may be factual or correct, please verify and research independently where possible.

https://www.npr.org/2017/06/24/533798430/alaskas-40-years-of-oil-riches-almost-never-was?t=1551607407384 Prudhoe Bay History

Formation of Oil & Gas Woodside Petroleum Video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8YHsxXEVB1M&feature=youtu.be added 02/12/2019

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sfWKztzNAzg The Oil Exploration Game 10/02/2019

https://oilfieldbasics.com/ Basic Oil Education Resource 09/12/2018

https://www.iris.edu/hq/inclass/course/geology_and_geophysics_in_the_petroleum_industry ** Added 20/03/18**

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qM61hePSmac (specific on artificial lift, but more links)



Geological Ages (refer to Conventional 23/10/2018)

Crain's Petrophysical Handbook

George E King Presentations General Jun, 2018

Oil & Gas Handbook

Petroleum Geology AAPG

Petro Geology Video Course


The Basics of Traps, Seals, Reservoirs & Shows

Anisotropy - see August Presentation page 14.
Anisotropy, is the property of being directionally dependent, which implies different properties in different directions, as opposed to isotropy. It can be defined as a difference, when measured along different axes, in a material's physical or mechanical properties An example of anisotropy is the light coming through a polarizer. Another is wood, which is easier to split along its grain than against it.

Artificial Lift
There are approximately 2 million oil wells in operation worldwide. More than 1 million wells use some type of artificial lift. More than 750,000 of the lifted wells use sucker-rod pumps. In the US, sucker-rod pumps lift approximately 350,000 wells. Approximately 80% of all US oil wells are stripper wells making less than 10 B/D with some water cut. The vast majority of these stripper wells are lifted with sucker-rod pumps. Of the nonstripper £higher£ volume wells, 27% are rod pumped, 52% are gas lifted, and the remainder are lifted with ESPs, hydraulic pumps, and other methods of lift. These statistics indicate the dominance of rod pumping for onshore operations. For offshore and higher-rate wells around the world, the use of ESPs and gas lift is much higher.

see also Nitrogen & Swabbing this page

Blow-Out Preventer Equipment (BOPE)
BOPE is a standard safety system used on all of Alaska’s oil and gas wells during well operation.
It is designed to halt the uncontrolled flow of oil, gas or water in the well if other safety measures (primarily the high pressure “mud” system) fail to do so. The AOGCC requires blowout preventers on all drill rigs and weekly tests typically witnessed by AOGCC operators.

Ceramic Proppant

Choke Sizes & Flow Control

Clean Up Videos…

Coil Tubing Use and Applications

Completion Jewellery explanation given last paragraph.

Core Analysis
The set of measurements normally carried out on core plugs or whole core. These generally include porosity, grain density, horizontal permeability, fluid saturation and a lithologic description. Routine core analyses often include a core gamma log and measurements of vertical permeability. Measurements are made at room temperature and at either atmospheric confining pressure, formation confining pressure, or both. Routine core analysis is distinct from special core analysis (SCAL). Recommended practices for routine core analysis are available in the API document RP40.

Creaming the Curve

88E Investor Briefing London 20th February 2017
1:09:30 on

"Dave Wall:
It wouldn't be great. How much would you get in that scenario? I can tell you it wouldn't be a maximized value, or what we refer to the “creaming the curve” which is a common industry term which is creating the most value in the shortest period of time. We would get, say the curve looks like this, we're here, we could get to there with the next well. If we execute the next 10 wells to delineate, we could get up to here, and then we leave something on the table for those guys. We just sell here. You want to execute that delineation program. That's the point that we think is the most appropriate way to move this forward in the success case."


Crude Oil Types

Darcy's Law

Data Rooms

Deltaic Reservoirs

The movement of ions or molecules from regions of high concentration to low concentration within a solution.
see Ficks Law.

Dispersed Clays

https://spec2000.net/11-vshbasics.htm added 23/07/2019

"Several recent papers have described and discussed the importance of dispersed clays in sandstones. This paper defines "dispersed" clay as silicate clay minerals (e.g., kaolinite, illite, smectite, chlorite) developed within the rock pore system and generally attached to rock mineral surfaces. Dispersed clay in rocks is of diagenetic (i.e., authigenic) origin, having developed subsequent to sediment deposition by precipitation of clay crystals from pore fluids. Particular clay mineral species develop in response to changes in pore water chemistry brought about by changing pore water chemistry brought about by changing temperature, pressure and groundwater conditions during burial and compaction. Since dispersed clays generally occur as a rock pore-filling component and haze a variety of crystal sizes and shapes, they exhibit a broad spectrum of adverse effects on rock fluid flow and fluid saturation properties."
NB:-Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution.

Authigenesis is the process whereby a mineral or sedimentary rock deposit is generated where it is found or observed. Such deposits are described as authigenic. Authigenic sedimentary minerals form during sedimentation by precipitation or recrystallization instead of being transported from elsewhere by water or wind.

Downdip - See Updip

Down Hole Cameras

Drill Calculations
http://www.iwcf.org/images/pdfs/study_materials/Distance_Learning_Drilling_Calculations_Part_3.pdf added 080318

(The) Drilling Process

Directional Drilling
Effective Porosity

The interconnected pore volume or void space in a rock that contributes to fluid flow or permeability in a reservoir.

Enhanced Oil Recovery
Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques can significantly extend global oil reserves once oil prices are high enough to make these techniques economic.

Farm Out Agreements
Farm Out
In the oil and gas industry, a farmout agreement is an agreement entered into by the owner of one or more mineral leases, called the "farmor", and another company who wishes to obtain a percentage of ownership of that lease or leases in exchange for providing services, called the "farmee." The typical services described in farmout agreements is the drilling of one or more oil and/or gas wells. A farmout agreement differs from a conventional transaction between two oil and gas lessees, because the primary consideration is the rendering of services, rather than the simple exchange of money.[1]

Farmout agreements typically provide that the farmor will assign the defined quantum of interest in the lease(s) to the farmee upon the farmee finishing: (1) the drilling of an oil and/or gas well to the defined depth or formation, or (2) drilling of an oil and/or gas well and the obtaining of commercially viable production levels.[2] Farmout Agreements are the second most commonly negotiated agreements in the oil and gas industry, behind the oil and gas lease.[3] For the farmor, the reasons for entering into a farmout agreement include obtaining production, sharing risk, and obtaining geological information. Farmees often enter into farmout agreements, because they wish to obtain an acreage position, need to utilize underutilized personnel, need to share risks, or because they desire to obtain geological information.[4]

A farmout agreement differs from its sister agreement, the Purchase and Sale Agreement (PSA), in that the PSA addresses an exchange of money or debt for immediate transfer of assets, whereas the farmout agreement addresses an exchange of services for a transfer of assets, and that transfer is often delayed until a later date (such as when the 'earning barier' has been m
*Farm In**
An arrangement whereby an Operator buys in or acquires an interest in a lease owned by another Operator on which oil or gas has been discovered or is being produced. Often farm-ins are negotiated to help the original owner with development costs and to secure for the buyer a source of crude oil or natural gas.

https://www.pbookshop.com/media/filetype/s/p/1406297744.pdf added 19/07/2019

https://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=da423e16-5bba-4db1-9535-2e5867b5ccc6 added 07/06/2019
https://dadoa.org/resources/Pictures/Anatomy%20of%20a%20Farmout%20Agreement_7-17-2017.pdf added 12/04/2019
https://egyptoil-gas.com/features/farm-ins-farm-outs-reasons-complexities-and-challenges/ added 03/04/2019
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oA2V9QA5J14 added 22/03/2019
https://youtu.be/vEoZUs_u4DY added 22/03/2019
https://www.investopedia.com/terms/f/farmout.asp added 22/03/2019

FIB-SEM see ANN 23/05/2019
Shales and other unconventional or low permeability (tight) reservoirs house vast quantities of hydrocarbons, often demonstrate considerable water uptake, and are potential repositories for fluid sequestration. The pore-scale topology and fluid transport mechanisms within these nanoporous sedimentary rocks remain to be fully understood. Image-informed pore-scale models are useful tools for studying porous media: a debated question in shale pore-scale petrophysics is whether there is a representative elementary volume (REV) for shale models? Furthermore, if an REV exists, how does it differ among petrophysical properties? We obtain three dimensional (3D) models of the topology of microscale shale volumes from image analysis of focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM) image stacks and investigate the utility of these models as a potential REV for shale. The scope of data used in this work includes multiple local groups of neighboring FIB-SEM images of different microscale sizes, corresponding core-scale (milli- and centimeters) laboratory data, and, for comparison, series of two-dimensional (2D) cross sections from broad ion beam SEM images (BIB-SEM), which capture a larger microscale field of view than the FIB-SEM images; this array of data is larger than the majority of investigations with FIB-SEM-derived microscale models of shale. Properties such as porosity, organic matter content, and pore connectivity are extracted from each model. Assessments of permeability with single phase, pressure-driven flow simulations are performed in the connected pore space of the models using the lattice-Boltzmann method. Calculated petrophysical properties are compared to those of neighboring FIB-SEM images and to core-scale measurements of the sample associated with the FIB-SEM sites. Results indicate that FIB-SEM images below ∼5000 µm3 volume (the largest volume analyzed) are not a suitable REV for shale permeability and pore-scale networks; i.e. field of view is compromised at the expense of detailed, but often unconnected, nanopore morphology. Further, we find that it is necessary to acquire several local FIB-SEM or BIB-SEM images and correlate their extracted geometric properties to improve the likelihood of achieving representative values of porosity and organic matter volume. Our work indicates that FIB-SEM images of microscale volumes of shale are a qualitative tool for petrophysical and transport analysis. Finally, we offer alternatives for quantitative pore-scale assessments of shale.



Fluid Densities

Formation Testing

https://www.slb.com/~/media/Files/evaluation/books/fundamentals_formation_testing_overview added 18/02/2019 (see page 5 for DFT)

http://www.glossary.oilfield.slb.com/Terms/d/dst.aspx09 added 18/02/2019

Fraccing Research
https://oilprice.com/Energy/Natural-Gas/The-Differences-In-Fracking-Tight-Sand-And-Shales.html added 07/10/2022
http://www.gekengineering.com/Downloads/Free_Downloads/Fracturing_Flowback_Controls_Analysis_Benefits_15_Jan_2014_v2.pdf added 280218
http://setxind.com/upstream/the-hydraulic-fracking-process-and-how-it-works/ added 080318
https://www.annscaprospecting.com/services-technology/fracking-fluid/ added 080318
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pKL1_tog0Kk added 17/06/2018

Fracture half length

G & A
http://www.ogfj.com/articles/print/volume-7/issue-7/capital-perspectives/the-soaring_cost_of.html (old but explains)

G & G


HAWK (hydrocarbon analyser with kinetics) see ANN 23/05/2019

The process of absorbing a wetting phase into a porous rock. Imbibition is important in a waterdrive reservoir because it can advance or hinder water movement, affecting areal sweep. Spontaneous imbibition refers to the process of absorption with no pressure driving the phase into the rock. It is possible for the same rock to imbibe both water and oil, with water imbibing at low in situ water saturation, displacing excess oil from the surface of the rock grains, and oil imbibing at low in-situ oil saturation, displacing excess water. An imbibition test is a comparison of the imbibition potential of water and oil into a rock. The wettability of the rock is determined by which phase imbibes more.

Ice Roads & Snow Roads

Snow Roads

Ice Roads

Permit for Q1,2019 drills states 32 miles needed.






http://www.conocophillips.com/spiritnow/story/ice-roads-the-western-north-slope-s-frozen-foundation/ added 10/01/2020

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P8WbFlLIBpc&feature=youtu.be added 11/01/2020

Iron Pyrite ( see Page 11 Feb, 2018 Presentation)

Logging While Drilling (LWD)
Also known as logging while drilling or LWD, the measurement of formation properties during the excavation of the hole, or shortly thereafter, through the use of tools integrated into the bottomhole assembly. LWD, while sometimes risky and expensive, has the advantage of measuring properties of a formation before drilling fluids invade deeply. Further, many wellbores prove to be difficult or even impossible to measure with conventional wireline tools, especially highly deviated wells. In these situations, the LWD measurement ensures that some measurement of the subsurface is captured in the event that wireline operations are not possible. Timely LWD data can also be used to guide well placement so that the wellbore remains within the zone of interest or in the most productive portion of a reservoir, such as in highly variable shale reservoirs.

ORA https://www.slb.com/reservoir-characterization/surface-and-downhole-logging/wireline-openhole-logging/wireline-formation-testing/ora-intelligent-wireline-formation-testing-platform
see Charlie-1 07/04/2020

(NB Icewine#2V type II) presentation April, 2019

Microseismic monitoring

"during the fracture stimulation operation indicates that an effective frac has been achieved; however, without micro-seismic monitoring, it is not possible to definitively confirm whether an optimal fracture system has been created utilising a vertical well bore. It is considered likely that the fractures created have not maximised contact with the reservoir and that a multi-stage stimulation in a horizontal well is required to achieve the reservoir"
ANN 02072018

Modular Processing aimed at Small Slope Fields

Multi Formation Vertical Drilling

ORA see "Logging"

The ability, or measurement of a rock's ability, to transmit fluids, typically measured in darcies or millidarcies.

Permeability (Phi-K)
Phi-k transforms are used widely to predict permeability.
Porosity/permeability correlations are often used to predict permeability and to populate the cells of a dynamic reservoir model. The passage from Phi to k typically involves three steps:
•In cored wells, a regression equation, or transform, is established between core porosity and core permeability, or more exactly, between core porosity and the logarithm of permeability.
•In uncored wells, log-derived porosity is used as input to this equation to predict permeability.
•The same equation is sometimes used again to distribute permeability in 3D at the scale of the cells of a reservoir model, where input porosity values are now obtained by interpolation because most cells are not traversed by a well.

Porosity (see also Effective Porosity)
The percentage of pore volume or void space, or that volume within rock that can contain fluids.



Pressure Cores

Propping Agents
Technological Advances Increase Proppant Consumption Per Well

The surge in frac sand consumption relative to the number of active horizontal drilling rigs has increased substantially over the last several years. This results from numerous factors that include: 1) application of advanced technologies such as: (a) multi-stage and higher density hydraulic fracturing per well, which increased from an average of about 3.4 hydraulic fracturing stages in 2008 to over 13 at the beginning of 2012. In 2014, wells with 30 stages were not uncommon and some wells have as many as 50 stages; (b) methods that result in more extensive fracturing in bedrock; and (c) reservoir stimulation of older wells by hydraulic fracturing; 2) improved efficiencies by drilling multiple holes from one site with closer spacing; and 3) refreshing of previously fracked wells by re-fracking (CBC News, 2014; Helman, 2014; McDivitt, 2014; Nangia, 2013; Schaefer, 2009; Schlumberger, 2014a; Spencer, 2014; Tucker, 2013). These advances have increased the average proppant consumption per well. For example, in 2008, the average amount of proppant, which was nearly all sand, used per horizontal well was approximately 900 t for a 1,500 m well. In 2010, the average amount of sand used was closer to 2,300 t for a well completed on a 3,000-m length measured horizontally. In 2014, an average horizontal well consumed from 4,100 to nearly 5,000 t of proppant of which over 90 percent, by weight, was sand, equivalent to 40 to 50, 100 short-ton capacity train car loads. In a few recent cases, wells required about 9,000 t of sand (Cadre Proppants, 2013; Fielden, 2013; Rock Products, 2014). Also, a well may be refracked multiple times over its life to increase production or refresh the well (Streetwise Reports, 2013; Tate, 2014). For the purpose of comparison, from 2011 through mid-2014, the amount of proppant required for fracking a vertical drill hole, nearly all of which was sand, remained essentially level, at about 230 t per well (Down Hole Trader, 2014; Geiver, 2014; PacWest, 2014b).

The average amount of proppant used per unit distance for horizontal holes is expected to continue to climb with improved fracturing technologies, closer-spaced and increased number of stages per drill hole, and refreshing of previously developed wells.

Reserves calculation and definitions
https://www.gljpc.com/sites/default/files/Understanding%20Contingent%20Resources_1.pdf Added 11/12/2018
https://www.spe.org/industry/docs/PRMS-Guide-for-Non-Technical-Users-2007.pdf Recommended Read
http://www.spe.org/industry/petroleum-resources-classification-system-definitions.php Recommended Read
https://www.spe.org/industry/docs/GlossaryPetroleumReserves-ResourcesDefinitions_2005.pdf - Glossary

VIEW https://youtu.be/zOU0RPU_tlo


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TeXpxXMsC-k Feb, 2019
http://wiki.aapg.org/Risk:_expected_value_and_chance_of_success read in conjunction with link below, see also reserves links elsewhere on page

SARA Analysis
A method for characterization of heavy oils based on fractionation, whereby a heavy oil sample is separated into smaller quantities or fractions, with each fraction having a different composition. Fractionation is based on the solubility of hydrocarbon components in various solvents used in this test. Each fraction consists of a solubility class containing a range of different molecular-weight species. In this method, the crude oil is fractionated to four solubility classes, referred to collectively as SARA: saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes. Saturates are generally iso- and cyclo-paraffins, while aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes form a continuum of molecules with increasing molecular weight, aromaticity, and heteroatom contents. Asphaltenes may also contain metals such as nickel and vanadium. This method is sometimes referred to as Asphaltene/Wax/Hydrate Deposition analysis.


https://www.alaskapublic.org/2019/04/03/seeking-hidden-pockets-of-oil-bp-takes-on-a-massive-project-at-prudhoe-bay/# added 11/05/2019 BP seismic winter 2018- 19



Seismic Inversion see Sep,18 presentation

The principle objective of seismic inversion is to transform seismic reflection data into a quantitative rock property, descriptive of the reservoir

https://www.slb.com/~/media/Files/resources/oilfield_review/ors08/spr08/seismic_inversion.pdf FEB, 2019

https://www.geoexpro.com/articles/2014/06/a-simple-guide-to-seismic-inversion Feb 2019




Show Evaluation


Stolt Migration technique
Used in WINX analysis.


Interpretation of Subsurface Hydro Carbon Shows


Super Critical Fluids

Means when the liquids exist in gaseous form in the reservoir – lower viscosity and can flow at higher rates




The temperature gradients around the Icewine1/2 locations are not available with any precision, and may be affected by the Permafrost on the one hand, and the High Radiation Zone on the other. the range of possibilities at the operating depth of 11,000 feet seem to be 100-140c - but here are a couple of links with general information as to the causes of a heat gradient.


Gay-Lussacs Law states that " The pressure of a given amount of gas held at constant volume is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature " thus in the context of icewine2, as pressure falls it will bring down the temperature, but a "shut-In" will cause pressure to rise in direct proportion to the rising temperature.

Tight Oil


Trans Alaskan Pipeline


Updip / Downdip

Updip and Downdip (US)
Updip. In an upward direction in a tilting formation.
Downdip. The direction going down the tilt angle of the formation.
Underground formations usually are not parallel to the surface of the ground. The term "dip" denotes the incline or slope of the formation. Updip therefore means located up the slope, and downdip is the antonym denoting the downward location. When a well is drilled, a dipmeter measures the tilt of the formation that is penetrated. From an observer's perspective, a specific point in the formation is said to be updip if it is higher and downdip if it is lower than the observer's reference point. This is relevant to hydrocarbon recovery because oil and gas tend to move higher in the formation, especially if there is water in the formation because oil floats on water.
In a conventional reservoir, a place that is higher in the formation (updip) is likely to have a greater accumulation of oil or gas and one lower in the formation (downdip) is likely to have less or none. In hydrocarbon reservoirs with oil, gas, and water, the gas is updip, the gas-oil contact is downdip from the gas, and the oil-water contact is even farther downdip. In non-conventional formations, the rock is tight and the hydrocarbons do not migrate at all or migrate slowly so whether you are updip or downdip is not as important.

Valmin Code
The VALMIN Code sets out requirements for the technical assessment and valuation of mineral assets and securities for independent expert reports, it provides guidance for petroleum assets and securities.
See AGM Presentation 2019.

Vitrinite Reflectance


Volatile Analysis Service
Reservoir fluid analysis is critical for understanding oil migration occurrences and variable reservoir characteristics when designing a field development plan.

Well Cementing


Wireline Logging
A general term used to describe well-intervention operations conducted using single-strand or multistrand wire or cable for intervention in oil or gas wells. Although applied inconsistently, the term commonly is used in association with electric logging and cables incorporating electrical conductors. Similarly, the term slickline is commonly used to differentiate operations performed with single-strand wire or braided lines.

https://www.slb.com/reservoir-characterization/surface-and-downhole-logging/wireline-openhole-logging/wireline-formation-testing/modular-formation-dynamics-tester added 25/03/2022 (explanation of MDT)

https://www.slb.com/reservoir-characterization/surface-and-downhole-logging/wireline-openhole-logging/sidewall-coring/xl-rock added 31/03/2020
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m51RGdK4RO0&ab_channel=Industrial3DInc%7CI3D added 23/03/2022


https://www.slb.com/-/media/files/oilfield-review/defining-logging.ashx PDF version




Baker Hughes Rig Count


Technical issue: I can't view the map in the Interactive Rig Count.
As of October 2019, we sunset the interactive map feature within our rig count site. You can continue to access the data by downloading the rig count iphone/ipad app or by downloading the files available on the site.

"When is a rotary rig "active" ?

To be counted as active a rig must be on location and be drilling or 'turning to the right'. A rig is considered active from the moment the well is "spudded" until it reaches target depth or "TD". Rigs that are in transit from one location to another, rigging up or being used in non-drilling activities such as workovers, completions or production testing, are NOT counted as active."




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